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Is the Bible from Heaven? Is the Earth a Globe?: Annotated: Includes Updated Flat Earth Resources

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The medieval Indian texts called the Puranas describe the Earth as a flat-bottomed, circular disk with concentric oceans and continents. [69] [72] This general scheme is present not only in the Hindu cosmologies, but also in Buddhist and Jain cosmologies of South Asia. [69] However, some Puranas include other models. The fifth canto of the Bhagavata Purana, for example, includes sections that describe the Earth both as flat and spherical. [73] [74] Early Christian Church

On the Heavens, Book ii Chapter 14. Lloyd, G. E. R. (1968). Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of His Thought. Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 162–64. ISBN 978-0-521-07049-2. Carpenter, William (1885). One Hundred Proofs that the Earth is Not a Globe. Baltimore: William Carpenter – via Project Gutenberg.a b Ambrose, Graham (July 7, 2017). "These Coloradans say Earth is flat. And gravity's a hoax. Now, they're being persecuted". The Denver Post . Retrieved August 19, 2017. Modern flat Earth belief originated with the English writer Samuel Rowbotham (1816–1884). Based on conclusions derived from his 1838 Bedford Level experiment, Rowbotham published the 1849 pamphlet titled Zetetic Astronomy, writing under the pseudonym "Parallax". He later expanded this into the book Earth Not a Globe, proposing the Earth is a flat disc centred at the North Pole and bounded along its southern edge by a wall of ice, Antarctica. Rowbotham further held that the Sun and Moon were 3,000 miles (4,800km) above Earth and that the "cosmos" was 3,100 miles (5,000km) above the Earth. [2] He also published a leaflet titled The Inconsistency of Modern Astronomy and its Opposition to the Scriptures, which argued that the " Bible, alongside our senses, supported the idea that the Earth was flat and immovable and this essential truth should not be set aside for a system based solely on human conjecture". [11] Shenton died in 1971. Charles K. Johnson, a correspondent from California, inherited part of Shenton's library from Shenton's wife; he incorporated and became president of the International Flat Earth Research Society of America and Covenant People's Church in California. Over the next three decades, under his leadership, the Flat Earth Society grew to a reported 3,500 members. [37]

Ragep, F. Jamil (2009). "Astronomy". Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. doi: 10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_22652 . Retrieved July 30, 2022. In Search of the Edge An Inquiry into the Shape of the Earth and the Disappearance of Andrea Barns". Bullfrog Films . Retrieved 8 May 2017. Some authorities have suggested that the sphericity of the Earth was among the aspects of Vergilius's teachings that Boniface and Zachary considered objectionable. [105] [106] Others have considered this unlikely, and take the wording of Zachary's response to indicate at most an objection to belief in the existence of humans living in the antipodes. [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] In any case, there is no record of any further action having been taken against Vergilius. He was later appointed bishop of Salzburg and was canonised in the 13th century. [112] 12th-century depiction of a spherical Earth with the four seasons (book Liber Divinorum Operum by Hildegard of Bingen) But a fringe society founded in the 1950s, dedicated to insisting that the Earth is flat, has given rise to a modern ground of flat Earth adherents. These believers claim that the Earth is a flat disc, and that evidence that it is round — say, pictures taken from space — are an elaborate hoax involving multiple governments. Opinions differ on exactly how the flat Earth works, with believers concocting elaborate versions of physics and creative interpretations of the solar system to make their theories work. In the end that is the core malfunction of the flat-earthers, and the modern populist rejection of expertise in general. It is a horrifically simplistic view of the world that ignores (partly out of ignorance, and partly out of motivated reasoning) to[ sic] real complexities of our civilisation. It is ultimately lazy, childish, and self-indulgent, resulting in a profound level of ignorance drowning in motivated reasoning. [85]The second faction believes in an overarching conspiracy for knowledge suppression. Building upon the premise that knowledge is power, the flat Earth conspiracy argues that a shadowy group of "elites" control knowledge to remain in power. In their view, lying about the fundamental nature of the Earth primes the population to believe a host of other conspiracies. This faction frames flat-Earth arguments as liberatory. [89]

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