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A History of Japan

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Saxonhouse, Gary; Stern, Robert (2003). "The bubble and the lost decade". The World Economy. 26 (3): 267–281. doi: 10.1111/1467-9701.00522. hdl: 2027.42/71597.

Main articles: Public holidays in Japan and Japanese festivals Young ladies celebrate Coming of Age Day ( 成人の日, Seijin no Hi ) in Harajuku, Tokyo. List of importing markets for the product exported by Japan in 2022". International Trade Centre . Retrieved August 11, 2023. In 1156, a dispute over succession to the throne erupted and the two rival claimants ( Emperor Go-Shirakawa and Emperor Sutoku) hired the Taira and Minamoto clans in the hopes of securing the throne by military force. During this war, the Taira clan led by Taira no Kiyomori defeated the Minamoto clan. Kiyomori used his victory to accumulate power for himself in Kyoto and even installed his own grandson Antoku as emperor. The outcome of this war led to the rivalry between the Minamoto and Taira clans. As a result, the dispute and power struggle between both clans led to the Heiji rebellion in 1160. In 1180, Taira no Kiyomori was challenged by an uprising led by Minamoto no Yoritomo, a member of the Minamoto clan whom Kiyomori had exiled to Kamakura. [62] Though Taira no Kiyomori died in 1181, the ensuing bloody Genpei War between the Taira and Minamoto families continued for another four years. The victory of the Minamoto clan was sealed in 1185, when a force commanded by Yoritomo's younger brother, Minamoto no Yoshitsune, scored a decisive victory at the naval Battle of Dan-no-ura. Yoritomo and his retainers thus became the de facto rulers of Japan. [63] Heian culture [ edit ] A handscroll painting dated c. 1130, illustrating a scene from the "Bamboo River" chapter of The Tale of Genji a b Carr, Michael (March 1992). "Wa Wa Lexicography". International Journal of Lexicography. 5 (1): 1–31. doi: 10.1093/ijl/5.1.1– via Oxford Academic.a b c d e Henshall, Kenneth (2012). "A Phoenix from the Ashes: Postwar Successes and Beyond". A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. Palgrave Macmillan. pp.142–180. ISBN 978-0-230-36918-4. Environmental Performance Index: Japan". Yale University. Archived from the original on November 19, 2018 . Retrieved February 26, 2018.

Main articles: Emperor of Japan, Government of Japan, Politics of Japan, and Law of Japan Emperor Naruhito, current head of state, and Empress Masako participated in the Imperial Procession by motorcar after the Ceremony of the Enthronement in Tokyo on November 10, 2019.


Blakkarly, Jarni (July 13, 2016). "Shadow of surveillance looms over Japan's Muslims". The Japan Times. McCurry, Justin (February 16, 2023). "Japan sees its number of islands double after recount". The Guardian. Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964 and the Winter Olympics in Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998. [352] The country hosted the official 2006 Basketball World Championship [353] and will co-host the 2023 Basketball World Championship. [354] Tokyo hosted the 2020 Summer Olympics in 2021, making Tokyo the first Asian city to host the Olympics twice. [355] The country gained the hosting rights for the official Women's Volleyball World Championship on five occasions, more than any other nation. [356] Japan is the most successful Asian Rugby Union country [357] and hosted the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup. [358] See also Japan has been inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic period (30,000 BC). Between the fourth and ninth centuries, the kingdoms of Japan became unified under an emperor and the imperial court based in Heian-kyō. Beginning in the 12th century, political power was held by a series of military dictators ( shōgun) and feudal lords ( daimyō), and enforced by a class of warrior nobility ( samurai). After a century-long period of civil war, the country was reunified in 1603 under the Tokugawa shogunate, which enacted an isolationist foreign policy. In 1854, a United States fleet forced Japan to open trade to the West, which led to the end of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. In the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-modeled constitution, and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization. Amidst a rise in militarism and overseas colonization, Japan invaded China in 1937 and entered World War II as an Axis power in 1941. After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a new constitution.

Ono, Akira; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Takashi; Kudo, Yuichiro (2002). "Radiocarbon Dates and Archaeology of the Late Pleistocene in the Japanese Islands". Radiocarbon. 44 (2): 477–494. doi: 10.1017/S0033822200031854.a b Henshall, Kenneth (2012). "Building a Modern Nation: the Meiji Period (1868–1912)". A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. Palgrave Macmillan. pp.75–107. ISBN 978-0-230-36918-4. Main articles: Health in Japan and Health care system in Japan Fujita University Hospital is the largest multi-speciality teaching hospital in Japan. Fujita, Eisuke; Ueda, Hideki; Nakada, Setsuya (July 2020). "A New Japan Volcanological Database". Frontiers in Earth Science. 8: 205. doi: 10.3389/feart.2020.00205. Main article: Kamakura period Minamoto no Yoritomo was the founder of the Kamakura shogunate in 1192. This was the first military government in which the shogun with the samurai were the de facto rulers of Japan. a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Japan)". International Monetary Fund. October 10, 2023 . Retrieved October 17, 2023.

Shūkyō nenkan reiwa gan'nen-ban 宗教年鑑 令和元年版[ Religious Yearbook 2019] (PDF) (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2019. p.35.Japan reaches out to the rest of Asia". Rugby World Cup. November 1, 2013. Archived from the original on December 17, 2013. Main articles: Demographics of Japan, Japanese people, Ethnic groups of Japan, List of metropolitan areas in Japan, and List of cities in Japan View of Tokyo from the top of the Tokyo Skytree. The Greater Tokyo Area is ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. [119] Since the late 19th century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. In 1896, Japan established a civil code based on the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, which remains in effect with post–World War II modifications. [120] The Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, is the oldest unamended constitution in the world. [121] Statutory law originates in the legislature, and the constitution requires that the emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet without giving him the power to oppose legislation. The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes. [119] Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts. [122]

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