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Life: The Science of Biology

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Basic science or “pure” science seeks to expand knowledge regardless of the short-term application of that knowledge. It is not focused on developing a product or a service of immediate public or commercial value. The immediate goal of basic science is knowledge for knowledge’s sake, although this does not mean that, in the end, it may not result in a practical application. From the first edition to the present, Life has set the standard for being the most balanced experimentally-based introductory biology text. Life has always presented how we know (the process of science through experiments) as well as what we know (facts derived from these experiments). The new edition builds on this legacy, again teaching fundamental concepts and the latest developments by taking students step by step through the research that revealed them. To achieve this, all of the Ninth Edition’s innovations—new authorship, new and reororganized chapters, new experimental content, enhanced features, reinvisioned art, and new media tools—are focused on giving students and instructors the best tools for bringing the best of biological research and applications into the introductory majors biology course. Achieve is more than just an online homework system—it’s a full online learning system. Studies show that a more structured course that includes smaller and more frequent assignments benefits students who are less prepared for the course without hindering well prepared students. Achieve supports that structure by providing content for all aspects of your course including pre-class preparation, in-class active learning, and post-class homework and assessment. Recall that a hypothesis is a suggested explanation that one can test. To solve a problem, one can propose several hypotheses. For example, one hypothesis might be, “The classroom is warm because no one turned on the air conditioning.” However, there could be other responses to the question, and therefore one may propose other hypotheses. A second hypothesis might be, “The classroom is warm because there is a power failure, and so the air conditioning doesn’t work.”

Goal Setting and Reflection Surveys help students learn how their expectations and behaviors contribute to achieving their own personal goals for the course. Instructors benefit from easy-to-access reports so they can gain important insights into their students’ expectations, confidence, and personal challenges. The evolutionary relationships of various life forms on Earth can be summarized in a phylogenetic tree. A phylogenetic tree is a diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among biological species based on similarities and differences in genetic or physical traits or both. A phylogenetic tree is composed of branch points, or nodes, and branches. The internal nodes represent ancestors and are points in evolution when, based on scientific evidence, an ancestor is thought to have diverged to form two new species. The length of each branch can be considered as estimates of relative time.

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Also avalable, Volume Splits:—paperbound in full color!Volume I: The Cell and Heredity (Chapters 1-20) One example of how basic and applied science can work together to solve practical problems occurred after the discovery of DNA structure led to an understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing DNA replication. DNA strands, unique in every human, are in our cells, where they provide the instructions necessary for life. When DNA replicates, it produces new copies of itself, shortly before a cell divides. Understanding DNA replication mechanisms enabled scientists to develop laboratory techniques that researchers now use to identify genetic diseases, pinpoint individuals who were at a crime scene, and determine paternity. Without basic science, it is unlikely that applied science could exist. Course and book-specific resources including adaptive quizzing to personalise the experience for students.

From the first edition to the present, Life has set the standard as the most balanced experiment-based introductory biology text. This edition builds on this legacy, again teaching fundamental concepts and the latest developments by taking students step by step through the research that revealed them. Once one has selected a hypothesis, the student can make a prediction. A prediction is similar to a hypothesis but it typically has the format “If . . . then . . . .” For example, the prediction for the first hypothesis might be, “ If the student turns on the air conditioning, then the classroom will no longer be too warm.” Testing a Hypothesis For example, bioethicists may examine the implications of gene editing technologies, including the ability to create organisms that may displace others in the environment, as well as the ability to “design” human beings. In that effort, ethicists will likely seek to balance the positive outcomes -- such as improved therapies or prevention of certain illnesses -- with negative outcomes.David M. Hillis is the Alfred W. Roark Centennial Professor in Integrative Biology at the University of Texas at Austin, where he also has directed the Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, the Biodiversity Center, and the School of Biological Sciences. Dr. Hillis has taught courses in introductory biology, genetics, evolution, systematics, and biodiversity.

These areas of study are still sciences, however. Consider archaeology—even though one cannot perform repeatable experiments, hypotheses may still be supported. For instance, archaeologists can hypothesize that an ancient culture existed based on finding a piece of pottery. They could make further hypotheses about various characteristics of this culture, which could be correct or false through continued support or contradictions from other findings. A hypothesis may become a verified theory. A theory is a tested and confirmed explanation for observations or phenomena. Therefore, we may be better off to define science as fields of study that attempt to comprehend the nature of the universe. Natural Sciences Biology is a science, but what exactly is science? What does the study of biology share with other scientific disciplines? We can define science (from the Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge”) as knowledge that covers general truths or the operation of general laws, especially when acquired and tested by the scientific method. It becomes clear from this definition that applying scientific method plays a major role in science. The scientific method is a method of research with defined steps that include experiments and careful observation. The Experiments and Work with the Data exercises highlight important research and instill the foundation of scientific investigation in students by always following the hypothesis–method–-results–conclusion framework. The 12th edition of Life: The Science of Biology continues to be engaging, active, and focused on teaching the skills that students need to master. New pedagogical features work in conjunction with powerful updates to the online suite of materials in LaunchPad to support the mission of Life by teaching students the skills and understanding of experimentation and data they need to succeed in introductory biology and ultimately in their future STEM careers. Life's potent combination of expertly crafted media, assessment, pedagogy and engagement makes this new edition the best resource yet for biology students.Discussion of COVID-19 pandemic is introduced in chapter 1, with further information also added to chapters 17, 19, 21, 24, 40, and 53. A GREENER LIFEAnother first, the new edition of Life is printed on paper earning the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) label, the “gold standard” in green paper products. Life paper includes 10% pre-consumer waste, 10% post-consumer waste, and is manufactured from wood from well-managed sustainable forests. Additionally, Life’s green initiatives include:

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